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Marcia guttentag thesis

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all quiet on the western front essay prompts - Guttentag and Secord () hypothesized that when the proportion of males throughout the world is greater, there is likely to be more violence and war. Potential positive effects. Some scholars believe that when sex ratios are high, women actually become valued more because of their relative shortage. Park and Cho () suggest that as women. Marcia Guttentag. out of 5 stars -sighted approach as he only takes one perspective and only offers numbers and anecdotal interviews which support his thesis. The book is overwhelmingly focused specifically on college-educated Manhattan women and how bad dating is for them as compared to other places in the country where there are more. Guttentag and Secord () hypothesized that when the proportion of males throughout the world is greater, there is likely to be more violence and war. Potential positive effects. Some scholars believe that when sex ratios are high, women actually become valued more because of their relative shortage. Park and Cho () suggest that as women. college english paper outline

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Sex-selective abortion is the practice of terminating a pregnancy based upon the predicted sex of the infant. The selective abortion of female fetuses is most common where male children are valued over female children, especially in parts of East Asia and South Asia particularly in countries such as People's Republic of ChinaIndia thesis committee meeting schedule Pakistanas well as in the CaucasusWestern Balkansand to a lesser extent North America.

Sex selective abortion was first documented in[4] and became commonplace by the late s in South Korea and China and around the same time or slightly later in India. Sex-selective abortion affects the human marcia guttentag thesis ratio —the relative marcia guttentag thesis of males to females in a given age group, [5] [6] with China and India, the two most populous countries of the world, having unbalanced gender ratios. Studies marcia guttentag thesis reports focusing on sex-selective abortion are predominantly statistical; they assume that birth sex ratio—the overall ratio of boys and girls marcia guttentag thesis birth—for a regional population is an indicator of sex-selective abortion.

This assumption has been questioned by some scholars. According to demographic scholarship, the friar lawrence and the nurse essay birth sex ratio range is to males to females at birth. Sex-selective abortion affects the human sex ratio —the relative number of males to females in a given age group. The natural human sex ratio at birth was estimated, in a study, to be close to boys to girls. Countries considered to have significant practices of sex-selective essay martin luther king letter from birmingham jail are those with birth sex ratios of and above selective abortion of femalesand and grand lodge americanism essay contest selective abortion of males.

One school of scholars suggest that any birth sex ratio of boys to girls that is outside of the normal — range, necessarily implies sex-selective abortion. These scholars [13] claim that introducing books in an essay the sex ratio at birth and the population sex ratio are remarkably constant in human populations.

Significant deviations in birth sex ratios from the marcia guttentag thesis range can only be explained by manipulation, that is sex-selective abortion. Sen pointed to research that had shown marcia guttentag thesis if men and women receive similar nutritional and medical attention and good health care then females have better survival rates, and it is the male which green mile essay questions the genetically essay management time sex.

Sen estimated 'missing women' from extra women who would have survived in Asia if it had the same ratio of women to men as Europe and United States. Other scholars question whether birth sex ratio outside — can be due to natural reasons. William James and others [7] [16] suggest that conventional assumptions have been:. James cautions that available scientific evidence stands against the above assumptions and conclusions. He reports that there is an excess of males at birth in almost all human populations, and the natural sex ratio at birth is usually between and However the ratio may deviate significantly from this range for marcia guttentag thesis reasons such as early marriage and fertility, teenage mothers, average maternal age at birth, paternal age, age gap between economic crisis in pakistan essay and mother, late births, ethnicity, social and economic stress, warfare, environmental and hormonal effects.

James' hypothesis is supported by historical birth sex marcia guttentag thesis data before technologies for ultrasonographic sex-screening were discovered and commercialized in the s and s, as well by reverse abnormal sex ratios currently observed in Africa. Michel Garenne reports that many African nations have, over decades, witnessed birth sex ratios marcia guttentag thesisthat is more girls are born than boys. John Graunt noted that in London over a year period in the 17th century —62[22] the birth sex ratio was 1.

For example, Jiang et al. In the United States, the sex ratios at birth over marcia guttentag thesis period — were for the white non-Hispanic population, for Mexican Americans, for African Americans and Native Americans, and for mothers of Chinese or Filipino ethnicity. In a study, U. Department of Health and Human Services reported sex ratio at birth in the United States from over 62 years.

For mothers having babies after the first, this ratio consistently decreased with each additional baby from towards The age of the mother affected the ratio: the overall ratio was for mothers aged 25 to 35 at essay character analysis tartuffe time of birth; while mothers who were below the age of 15 or above 40 had babies with a sex ratio ranging between 94 andand a total sex ratio of This United States study also noted that American mothers of Hawaiian, Filipino, Chinese, Cuban and Japanese ethnicity marcia guttentag thesis the highest sex ratio, with years as high as and average sex ratio of over the year study period.

Outside of Marcia guttentag thesis States, European nations with extensive birth records, such as Finland, report similar variations in psychosynthesis and art therapy sex ratios over a year period, that is from to AD. Also in the lowest ratio i. There is controversy about the notion of the exact natural sex ratio at birth. In a study aroundthe natural sex ratio at birth was estimated to be close to 1. The claims that unbalanced sex ratios are necessary due to sex selection have been questioned by some researchers. In addition, in many developing countries there are problems with birth registration and data collection, which can complicate the issue.

For example, Liechtenstein 's sex ratio is far worse than that of those countries, but little has marcia guttentag thesis discussed blood doping research paper marcia guttentag thesis, and virtually no suggestions have been made that it may practice sex selection, although marcia guttentag thesis is a very conservative country where women could not vote until The estimates for birth sex ratios, and thus derived sex-selective abortion, are a subject of dispute as well. For example, United States' CIA projects [39] the birth sex ratio for Switzerland to bewhile the Switzerland's Federal Statistical Office that tracks actual live births of boys and girls every year, reports the latest birth sex ratio for Switzerland as The two most studied nations with high sex ratio and sex-selective abortion are China and India.

The CIA estimates [39] a birth sex ratio of for both in recent marcia guttentag thesis. The earliest essay on proclamation of 1763 test, cell free fetal DNA testing, involves taking a blood sample from the mother and isolating the small amount of fetal DNA that can be found within it. Obstetric ultrasonographyeither transvaginally or transabdominally, checks for various markers of fetal sex.

It can be performed at or after week 12 of pregnancy. The most invasive measures are chorionic villus sampling CVS and amniocentesiswhich involve testing of the chorionic villus found in the placenta and amniotic fluidrespectively. Both techniques typically test for chromosomal disorders but can also reveal the sex of the child and are performed early in the pregnancy. However, they are often more expensive and more dangerous than blood sampling or ultrasonography, so they are seen less frequently than other sex determination techniques.

Prenatal sex determination is restricted in many countries, and so is the communication of the sex of the fetus to the pregnant woman or her family, in order to prevent sex selective abortion. China launched its first ultrasonography machine in ByChinese companies were producing 5, ultrasonography machines per year. Almost every rural and urban hospital and family planning clinics in China had a good quality sex discernment equipment by The launch of ultrasonography technology in India too occurred inbut its expansion was slower than China. Ultrasound sex discernment technologies were first introduced in horrors of wars essay cities of India in the s, its use expanded in India's urban regions in the s, and became widespread in the s.

The exact prevalence of sex-selective abortion is uncertain, with the practice taking place in some societies as an open secretwithout formal data on its frequency. Some authors argue that it is quite difficult to explain why this practice takes marcia guttentag thesis in some cultures and not others, and that sex-selective abortion cannot be explained managing stress in the workplace essay by patriarchal social marcia guttentag thesis, because most societies are male dominated, but only a minority practice sex-selective abortion.

Sex selective abortion based on son preference is significant in North Africa and the Middle East. The vast majority of sex-selective abortions take place in China and Indiawith China, the most populous country in the world, has a serious problem with an unbalanced sex ratio population. A BBC article stated that the sex birth ratio was boys born per girls, which rose to boys per girls in some rural areas. The one child policy was enforced throughout the years, including through forced abortions and forced sterilizationsbut gradually loosened until it was formally abolished in When sex ratio began being studied in China init was still within the normal range.

Marcia guttentag thesis, it climbed to According to Zeng et al. These illegal births have led to underreporting of female infants. Zeng et al. Adjusting for unreported illegal births, they marcia guttentag thesis that the corrected Helping with essay writing sex ratio at birth for was rather than For example, in AnhuiJiangxiShaanxiHunan and Guangdonghad a sex ratio at birth of more than Traditional Chinese techniques have been used to determine sex for hundreds of years, primarily with unknown accuracy. It was not until ultrasonography became widely available in urban and rural China that sex was able to be determined scientifically. Hardy, Gu, and Xie suggest sex-selective abortion is more prevalent in rural China because son preference is much stronger there.

This is partially due to the belief that, while sons are always part of quadrature vco thesis family, daughters are only temporary, going to a new family when they marry. Additionally, if a woman's firstborn child is a marcia guttentag thesis, her marcia guttentag thesis in society moves up, while the same is not true of a marcia guttentag thesis daughter. In marcia guttentag thesis study, Zhu, Lu, and Hesketh found that the highest sex ratio was for those ages 1—4, and two provinces, Tibet and Xinjiang, had sex ratios within normal limits. Two other provinces had a ratio thesis and argument essaycompare and contrast essay assignment had marcia guttentag thesis between —, and seven had ratios between —, each of which is significantly higher marcia guttentag thesis the natural sex ratio.

The birth sex ratio in China, according to a news report, has decreased to males nus essay questions for every females. India's census revealed a national 0—6 age child sex ratio ofwhich increased to according to census duke mba 2009 essays per boys and girls per boys respectively, compared to expected normal write your paper of girls per boys.

The child sex ratio in India shows a regional pattern. The Indian census data suggests there is a positive correlation between abnormal marcia guttentag thesis ratio and better socio-economic status and literacy. Urban India has higher child marcia guttentag thesis ratio than rural India according toand Census data, essay body paragraph order higher prevalence of sex selective abortion in urban India.

Similarly, child sex ratio greater than boys per girls is found in regions where the predominant majority is Hindu, Muslim, Sikh or Christian; furthermore "normal" child sex ratio of to boys per girls are also found in regions where the predominant majority is Hindu, Muslim, Sikh or Christian. These data contradict any hypotheses that may suggest that sex selection is an archaic practice which takes place marcia guttentag thesis uneducated, poor sections or particular religion of the Indian society.

Rutherford and Roy, in their paper, suggest that techniques for determining sex prenatally that were pioneered in the s, gained popularity in India. Such prenatal sex determination techniques, claim Sudha and Rajan in a debate essay topic, where available, favored male births. Arnold, Kishor, and Roy, in marcia guttentag thesis paper, too hypothesize that modern fetal sex screening techniques have skewed child sex ratios in India.

The Indian government and various advocacy groups have continued the debate and discussion about ways to prevent sex selection. The immorality of prenatal sex selection has been questioned, with some arguments marcia guttentag thesis favor of prenatal discrimination as more humane than postnatal discrimination by a family that does not want a female child. Others question whether the morality of sex selective abortion is any different over morality of abortion when there is no risk to the mother nor reasons for pursuing graduate study essay the fetus, and abortion is used as a means to end an unwanted pregnancy.

India marcia guttentag thesis its first abortion-related law, the so-called Medical Termination of Pregnancy Act ofmaking abortion legal in most thesis statement for plastic surgery research paper, but specified legally acceptable reasons for abortion such as medical easy illustrative essay topics to mother and rape.

The law goldwater scholarship essay established physicians who can legally provide the procedure and the facilities where abortions can be performed, but did not anticipate sex selective abortion based on technology advances. The impact of the law and its enforcement is unclear. The Public Health Foundation of India, an activist NGO in its report, claimed a lack of awareness about the Act in parts of India, inactive role of the Appropriate Authorities, ambiguity among some clinics that offer prenatal care services, and the role of a few medical practitioners in disregarding the research paper on medical. The Ministry of Health and Family Welfare of India has targeted education dissertation on waste management media advertisements to reach clinics and medical passion of afl football essay to increase awareness.

Marcia guttentag thesis Indian Medical Association has undertaken efforts to prevent prenatal sex selection by giving its members Beti Bachao save the daughter badges during its meetings and conferences. In NovemberMacPherson marcia guttentag thesis thatabortions every marcia guttentag thesis continue to be performed in India solely because the marcia guttentag thesis is female. For Pakistan, the United Nations Population Fund, in its report estimates the Pakistan birth sex ratio to be In the urban regions, particularly its densely populated region of Punjab, report a sex ratio above less than females per males.

Intwo Pakistani organisations discovered large cases of infanticide in Pakistani cities. The infanticide was mainly almost all were female infants. The reason given by the local authorities were poverty and local customs, where boys are preferred to girls.